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Hn*' HKmufiu-y, «.• ''X*.-'ftwii «• V ' ■ 



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Almost nothing had been written 
of Cherokee history until 1897- 
'98, and many details and inci- 
dents in the life of Junaluska are 
not recorded. A full account of 
the battle of Horseshoe Bend and 
many causes of the removal to 
the West are given because of 
the important part they play in 
his life. I acknowledge my in- 
debtedness to Mr. James Mooney, 
United States Ethnologist, and 
to others who have written short 
appreciations of Lake Junaluska. 

Maude McCulloch, 
Waynesville, N. C. 

<U JL 


S a rule Indian children are unnamed 
until several months old, and then 
are generally named by one of the 
grandparents. Some names are de- 
rived from some circumstance of 
birth, others from a dream, and 
many— particularly among the Cher- 
okee — are hereditary. Any of these may be 
changed repeatedly in after life. 

In early life Junaluska was known as GiiY- 
kala'ski. The name refers to something habitu- 
ally falling from a leaning position. He was 
born about the year 1758, and no one knows 
why this name was given him. 

The Creeks were hereditary enemies of the 
Cherokee. On the outbreak of the Creek war 
in 1813, Gul'kala'ski raised a party of warriors 
to go down, as he boasted, "to exterminate the 


Creeks." John Preston Arthur, in his "His- 
tory of Western North Carolina," states that, 
1 'at first, he failed to keep his promise." Not 
meeting with success, he announced the result, 
according to the Cherokee custom, at the next 
dance after his return in a single word, detsinu'- 
lahufigu', "I tried, but could not," given out as 
a cue to the song leader, who at once took it as 
the burden of his song. Thenceforth Gul'kala'- 
ski was known as Tsunu'lahufi'ski, "One who 
tries, but fails. " Tsunu'lahufr\ski was cor- 
rupted by the whites to Junaluska. 

Tsunu'lahufi'ski distinguished himself as a 
great warrior at the battle of Horseshoe Bend, 
Tallapoosa County, Alabama, where the Creeks 
were reported to have collected in great force. 
At this place, known to the Creeks as Tohopki 
or Tohopeka, the Tallapoosa river made a bend 
so as to inclose some eighty or one hundred 
acres in a narrow peninsula opening to the 
north. On the lower side was an island in 
the river. Across the neck of the peninsula the 
Creeks had built a strong breastwork of logs, 
behind which were their houses, and behind 
these were a number of canoes moored to the 
bank for use if retreat became necessary. The 
fort was defended by a thousand warriors, with 
whom were also about three hundred women 


and children. General Andrew Jackson's force 
numbered about two thousand men, including, 
according to his own statement, five hundred 
Cherokee. He had two small cannon. The mas- 
sacre occurred on the morning of March 27, 

General Jackson detailed General Coffee, with 
the mounted men and nearly the whole of the 
Indian force, to cross the river at a ford about 
three miles below and surround the bend in 
such manner that none could escape in that 
direction. Jackson, with the rest of his force, 
advanced to the front of the breastwork and 
planted his cannon upon a slight rise within 
eighty yards of the fortification. He then di- 
rected a heavy cannonade upon the center of 
the breastwork, while the rifles and muskets 
kept up a galling fire upon the defenders when- 
ever they showed themselves behind the logs. 
The breastwork was very strongly and com- 
pactly built, from five to eight feet high, with 
a double row of portholes, and so planned that 
no enemy could approach without being exposed 
to a crossfire from those on the inside. After 
about two hours of cannonading and rifle fire 
to no great purpose, a company of spies and a 
party of the Cherokee force crossed over to the 
peninsula in canoes and set fire to a few of their 


buildings there situated. They then advanced 
with great gallantry toward the breastwork 
and commenced firing upon the enemy. Find- 
ing that this force, notwithstanding the deter- 
mination they displayed, was wholly insufficient 
to dislodge the enemy, Jackson determined to 
take possession of their works by storm. 

Coffee had taken seven hundred mounted 
troops and about six hundred Indians, of whom 
five hundred were Cherokee and the rest 
friendly Creeks, and had come in behind, hav- 
ing directed the Indians to take position se- 
cretly along the bank of the river to prevent 
the enemy from crossing. 

According to the official report of Colonel 
Gideon Morgan, who commanded the Cherokee, 
and who was himself severely wounded, the 
Cherokee took the places assigned them along 
the bank in such regular order that no part 
was left unoccupied, and the few fugitives who 
attempted to escape from the fort by water 
"fell an easy prey to their vengeance." Finally, 
seeing that the cannonade had no more effect 
upon the breastwork than to bore holes in the 
logs, some of the Cherokee plunged into the 
river, and swimming over to the town brought 
back a number of canoes. A part crossed in 
these, under cover of the guns of their compan- 


ions, and sheltered themselves under the bank 
while the canoes were sent back for reenforce- 
ments. In this way they all crossed over and 
then advanced up the bank, where at once they 
were warmly assailed from every side except 
the rear, which they kept open only by hard 

The Creeks had been fighting the Americans 
in their front at such close quarters that their 
bullets flattened upon the bayonets thrust 
through the portholes. This attack from the 
rear by five hundred Cherokee diverted their 
attention and gave opportunity to the Tennes- 
seeans, Sam Houston among them, cheering 
them on, to swarm over the breastwork. With 
death from the bullet, the bayonet and the 
hatchet all around them, and the smoke of their 
blazing homes in their eyes, not a Creek war- 
rior begged for his life. When more than half 
their number lay dead upon the ground, 
the rest turned and plunged into the river, 
only to find the banks on the opposite side 
lined with enemies and escape cut off in 
every direction. Very few ever reached the 
bank, and that few were killed the instant they 
landed. From two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred of the enemy were buried under water 
and were not numbered with the dead that were 


found. Some swam for the island below the 
bend, but here too a detachment had been 
posted and "not one ever landed." 

Jackson says: "The enemy, although many 
of them fought to the last with that kind of 
bravery which desperation inspires, were at 
last entirely routed and cut to pieces. The bat- 
tle may be said to have continued with severity 
for about five hours, but the firing and slaugh- 
ter continued until it was suspended by the 
darkness of night. The next morning it was 
resumed and sixteen of the enemy slain who 
had concealed themselves under the banks." 

About three hundred prisoners were taken, 
of whom only three were men. Jackson states 
that not more than twenty Creeks could have 
escaped. The defenders of the Horseshoe had 
been exterminated. 

On the other side the loss was twenty-six 
Americans killed and one hundred and seven 
wounded, eighteen Cherokee killed and thirty- 
six wounded, five friendly Creeks killed and 
eleven wounded. It will be noted that the loss 
to the Cherokee was out of all proportion to 
their numbers, their fighting having been hand 
to hand work without protecting cover. In view 
of the fact that only a few weeks before Jackson 
had been compelled to retreat before the 


Creeks, and that two hours of artillery and rifle 
fire had produced no result until the Cherokee 
turned the rear of the enemy by their daring- 
passage of the river, there is truth in the claim 
of Junaluska that they saved the day for Jack- 
son, and thus there was fulfilled in a measure the 
boast of Junaluska that he would ' ' exterminate 
the Creeks," because he rendered such val- 
uable assistance to Jackson in breaking the 
chief arm of that intrepid nation in the battle 
of Horseshoe Bend. In view of that achieve- 
ment his name now signifies ' ' The Undaunted. ' ' 
In the number of men actually engaged and the 
immense proportion killed, this ranks as the 
greatest Indian battle in the history of the 
United States, with the possible exception of 
the battle of Mauvila, fought by the same In- 
dians in DeSoto's time. The result was deci- 
sive. The Creek war was at an end. 

Not many years passed before the Cherokee 
began to hear the first low muttering of the 
coming storm that was soon to overturn their 
whole governmental structure and sweep them 
forever from the land of their birth. In No- 
vember, 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected 
President of the United States. He was a fron- 
tiersman and Indian hater. His position was 
well understood, and there is good ground for 


believing that the action at once taken by 
Georgia was at his suggestion. A month after 
his election, Georgia passed an act annexing 
that part of the Cherokee country within her 
chartered limits and extending over it her juris- 
diction ; all laws and customs established among 
the Cherokee were declared null and void, and 
no person of Indian blood or descent residing 
within the Indian country was henceforth to be 
allowed as a witness or party in any suit where 
a white man should be defendant. The act was 
to take effect June 1, 1830. The whole territory 
was soon after mapped out into counties and 
surveyed by state surveyors into "land lots" 
of 160 acres each, and "gold lots" of 40 acres, 
which were put up and distributed among the 
white citizens of Georgia by public lottery, each 
white citizen receiving a ticket. Every Cher- 
okee head of a family was, indeed, allowed a 
reservation of 160 acres, but no deed was given, 
and his continuance depended solely on the 
pleasure of the legislature. Provision was made 
for the settlement of contested lottery claims 
among the white citizens, but by the most strin- 
gent enactments, in addition to the sweeping 
law which forbade anyone of Indian blood to 
bring suit or to testify against a white man, it 
was made impossible for the Indian owner to 


defend his right in any court or to resist the 
seizure of his homestead, or even his own dwell- 
ing house, and anyone so resisting was made 
subject to imprisonment at the discretion of a 
Georgia court. Other laws directed to the 
same end quickly followed, one of which made 
invalid any contract between a white man and 
an Indian unless established by the testimony 
of two white witnesses — thus practically can- 
celing all debts due from white men to Indians 
— while another obliged all white men residing 
in the Cherokee country to take a special oath 
of allegiance to the state of Georgia, on pen- 
alty of four years' imprisonment in the pen- 
itentiary, this act being intended to drive out 
all the missionaries, teachers, and other edu- 
cators who refused to countenance the spolia- 
tion. About the same time the Cherokee were 
forbidden to hold councils, or to assemble for 
any public purpose, or to dig for gold upon 
their own lands. 

The purpose of this legislation was to render 
life in their own country intolerable to the 
Cherokee by depriving them of all legal protec- 
tion and friendly counsel, and the effect was 
precisely as intended. In an eloquent address 
upon the subject before the House of Represen- 
tatives, the distinguished Edward Everett 


clearly pointed out the encouragement which it 
gave to lawless men : "They have but to cross 
the Cherokee line ; they have but to choose the 
time and the place where the eye of no white 
man can rest upon them, and they may burn 
the dwelling, waste the farm, plunder the prop- 
erty, assault the person, murder the children 
of the Cherokee subject of Georgia, and though 
hundreds of the tribe may be looking on, there 
is not one of them that can be permitted to bear 
witness against the spoiler." Senator Sprague, 
of Maine, said of the law that it devoted the 
property of the Cherokee to the cupidity of 
their neighbors, leaving them exposed to every 
outrage which lawless persons could inflict, so 
that even robbery and murder might be com- 
mitted with impunity at noonday, if not in the 
presence of whites who would testify against it. 
The jjrediction was fulfilled to the letter. The 
Cherokee appealed to President Jackson, but 
were told that no protection would be afforded 
them. Despairing of any help from the Presi- 
dent, the Cherokee addressed an earnest me- 
morial to Congress, which memorial evidenced 
the devoted and pathetic attachment with which 
the Cherokee clung to the land of their fathers. 
Attempt after attempt was made to induce the 
Cherokee, to remove to the West, but they re- 


fused to be convinced that justice, prosperity, 
and happiness awaited them beyond the Mis- 

The national paper, "The Cherokee Phoe- 
nix," was suppressed and its office plant seized 
by a guard. Their chief, Gu'wisguwf (John 
Ross), was arrested, all his private papers be- 
ing taken at the same time, and conveyed into 
Georgia, where he was held for some time with- 
out charge against him, and at last released 
without apology or explanation. 

The Cherokee were nearly worn out by con- 
stant battle against a fate from which they 
could see no escape. A treaty was finally drawn 
up and signed on December 29, 1835. 

Briefly stated, by this treaty of New Echota, 
Georgia, the Cherokee Nation ceded to the 
United States its whole remaining territory 
east of the Mississippi for the sum of five mill- 
ion dollars and a common joint interest in the 
territory already occupied by some Cherokee 
who had moved to the West to Indian Territory, 
now Oklahoma, with an additional smaller tract 
adjoining on the northeast, in what is now Kan- 
sas. Improvements were to be paid for, and 
the Indians were to be removed at the expense 
of the United States, and subsisted at the ex- 
pense of the government for one year after 


their arrival in the new country. The removal 
was to take place within two years from the 
ratification of the treaty. 

It was agreed that a limited number of 
Cherokee who should desire to remain behind 
in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama, 
and become citizens, having first been adjudged 
''qualified or calculated to become useful cit- 
izens," might so remain, together with a few 
holding individual reservations under former 
treaties. This provision was allowed by the 
commissioners, but was afterward stricken out 
on the announcement by President Jackson of 
his determination "not to allow any preemp- 
tions or reservations, his desire being that the 
whole Cherokee people should remove to- 
gether. ' ' 

Provision was made for payment of debts due 
by the Indians out of any moneys coming to 
them under the treaty ; for the reestablishment 
of the missions in the West; for pensions to 
Cherokee wounded in the service of the gov- 
ernment in the war of 1812 and the Creek war ; 
for permission to establish in the new country 
such military posts and roads for the use of 
the United States as should be deemed neces- 
sary; for satisfying Osage claims in the west- 
ern territory and for bringing about a friendly 


understanding between the two tribes ; for the 
commutation of all annuities and other sums 
due from the United States into a permanent 
national fund, the interest to be placed at the 
disposal of the officers of the Cherokee Nation 
and by them disbursed, according to the will 
of their own people, for the care of schools and 
orphans, and for general national purposes. 

The principal officers of the Nation were not 
present when this treaty was drawn up. Gu'- 
wisguwi' and the national delegates presented 
protests with signatures representing nearly 
16,000 Cherokee, but the treaty was ratified by 
a majority of one vote over the necessary num- 
ber, and steps were at once taken to carry it 
into execution. 

The history of this Cherokee removal of 
1838, as gleaned from the lips of actors in the 
tragedy, exceeds in weight of grief and pathos 
any other passage in American history. Even 
the much-sung exile of the Arcadians falls far 
behind it in its sum of death and misery. 

Junaluska accompanied the exiles of 1838, but 
afterward returned to his old home in western 
North Carolina. He was often heard to say: 
"If I had known that Jackson would drive us 
from our homes, I would have killed him that 
day at the Horseshoe." In recognition of his 


services the state legislature, by special act, in 
1847 conferred upon him the right of citizen- 
ship and granted to him three hundred and 
thirty-seven acres of land in Graham County, 
near the present Kobbinsville. 

Junaluska died about the year 1858, aged 
more than one hundred years. They laid him 
under the trees in the land of his birth, and 
"over his bed the wild vines lovingly wove a 
coverlid of softest green. All his woodland 
friends gather about his couch. Forest and 
hill and flower and cloud sing the songs he 
loved. All day the sunlight lays its wealth in 
bars of gold at his feet, and at night the moon- 
light things and the shadow things come out to 
play. ' ' By his side they laid Nicie, his wife. A 
monument was erected to his memory in 1910, 
but the greatest and most enduring monuments 
of this far-famed East Cherokee chief are 
Mount Junaluska, bathed in the everlasting 
sunshine of the land of the sky or wrapped in 
mantles of untrodden snow, and Lake Juna- 
luska, which nestles at its base and from its 
depths reflects as a vast mirror the incompar- 
able splendors of the surrounding hills, lofty 
mountains and gorgeous sunsets. 


They laid him under the trees. 

Pag-e 16 




HE Laymen's Missionary Movement 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, at its Convention in Chatta- 
nooga, Tennessee, in April, 1908, 
took into consideration the question 
of establishing at the most suitable 
place a great permanent Assembly 
such as would meet the growing need of the 
Church for rest, recreation, conference, train- 
ing and inspiration. The Executive Committee 
of the Movement was empowered to establish 
such an Assembly. The Executive Committee 
appointed a Committee on Location to look thor- 
oughly into such questions as healthfulness, 
beauty, comfort, accessibility, water and water- 
power and to report. This Committee visited 
various places, and, after long and careful ex- 
amination into the elements which enter into 
the location for such an Assembly, reported in 
favor of Richland Valley, Haywood County, 
North Carolina. On the basis of this report the 
Executive Committee took up the whole ques- 
tion and confirmed with gratifying unanimity 
the choice of their Committee on Location. 


A gigantic pair of compasses, with one point 
on the apex of Mount Junaluska, and the other 
at Baltimore, on the northeastern border of the 
Southern Methodist territory, would describe a 
circle extending from the shore of Lake Erie 
to the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, and from 
the border of the Atlantic Ocean to beyond St. 
Louis, Missouri. There is no place east of the 
Mississippi with the necessary qualifications 
which is more accessible to our Southern peo- 
ple than Lake Junaluska. 

It is in the center of the most beautiful and 
fertile section of the mountains, lying on the 
apex of the Blue Eidge range, twenty-eight hun- 
dred feet above sea level. Within a radius of 
fifty miles are many lofty peaks lifting their 
heads into the ethereal blue, while numerous 
lesser eminences give a pleasing contrast and 
add to the beauty of the scene. From Point 
Junaluska toward the gates of the sunset one 
sees the mountains standing round about like 
the mountains round about Jerusalem, and 
Mount Junaluska, the grandest of them all, in 
the center of the group, pierces the sky. 

At Lake Junaluska the climate is sufficiently 
bracing to make vigorous exercise of body and 
mind a joy, and to insure nightly repose with 
the drapery of your couch about you, while 


much of the world is seeking relief from the 
stifling airs of the lowlands. 

Scattered about this region are numerous 
springs of cool, pure, sparkling water gushing 
from the mountains hard by, and Eichland 
Creek, a bold stream, once divided the bound- 
ary of more than a thousand acres into two 
nearly equal parts. 

Such a region of enchantment was the home 
of the Cherokee, whose progeny still linger in 
peaceful possession near by, and this was the 
enchanted spot selected by the Laymen's Mis- 
sionary Movement of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, to gather the tribes from every 
part of the Church year after year. 

To appreciate Lake Junaluska fully, one 
should read the history of the Cherokee who 
roamed these mountains. They have left a 
memory and traditions behind them which still 
linger in this district. The whole country is 
haunted ground, and the landscapes, beautiful 
in themselves, become twice glorified by the 
glamour thrown around and about them by the 
genius of the story-teller. 

The Committee saw this valley prepared by 
the Great Architect and Builder, and, shutting 
their eyes, caught a vision of a new-born lake, 
along whose shores multitudes would hear and 


answer the same call that once men heard by 
Galilee, to the world's remaking. 

In the summer of 1913, they halted Richland 
Creek in its flow through an upland valley, and 
in three weeks the valley bore on its breast as 
charming a lake as any that reflect the skies of 
Scotland, England, Switzerland or Italy. It 
laved the feet of mountains which saw in its 
mirror for the first time how beautiful they 
were. The water, churned almost into mist, 
dashed over the spillway, making one of the 
most beautiful waterfalls to be seen among the 

Around the lake the landscape architect 
threw a looped girdle of winding road over six 
miles in length. He also threw loop after loop 
around the hills, from various points of which 
the most beautiful views appear. 

Down at the water's edge they built a cir- 
cular steel auditorium capable of seating forty- 
five hundred. A number of cottages and public 
buildings were erected, some on breeze-swept 
heights, others nestling down among the shady 
coves. Beautiful for location is Junaluska Inn, 
the pride of the Junaluskans. 

The United States Bureau of Fisheries 
stocked Lake Junaluska with fishes, and fisher- 
men have every reason to rejoice with the com- 


ing of summer, for it brings promise of rare 
sport along its banks. There we have the royal 
basses and many other fishes in an abundance 
that makes every follower of Izaak Walton 

The "Oonaguska," a double-decked steamer 
with a passenger capacity of over two hundred, 
was launched on August 22, 1914. The ' ' Oona- 
guska" and a smaller launch make excursions 
around the lake. Often these excursions are 
made at night, when the moon like a queen 
comes forth from the slow opening curtains of 
the clouds, and over the lake, the vales, the 
hills, the mountains, her silver mantle throws. 

Many enjoy boating, and at any time one 
can look out and see numerous boats gliding 
over the surface of the water. Swimming, 
horseback riding, autoing, tennis, basket-ball, 
croquet, baseball, bowling and other sports are 
enjoyed by the guests and lake-dwellers. On 
October 24, 1916, a Golf Club was organized, 
and over one hundred acres of land was selected 
by experts for a golf course. 

Lake Junaluska is within easy reach of many 
neighboring places of interest by mountain 
trails, carriages, automobiles, or trains. 




HE trip to Mount Junaluska, eight 
miles away, is often taken by tramp- 
ing parties, who, in the early morn- 
ing, before the sun far ascends the 
eastern slope, are wending their 
way over vale and hill. One is 
compelled to exclaim, 

"Earth's crammed with heaven, 
And every common bush afire with God." 

They follow the trail up the mountain side, 
over babbling brooks, through dense forest 
shade beneath canopies where filtering sun- 
beams strain their way through incense-mak- 
ing boughs— on, until they merge from the 
shadows and enter a scantily wooded section, 
from which point can be seen the forests man- 
tling the mountain sides with their dark green 
coats, mottled here and there with lighter green, 
and in the valley below the town of Waynes- 
ville, beautiful for situation. Myriads of small 
winged creatures — birds, bees, butterflies — give 
glad animation and fill the air with music. 


The air of these uplands is a perfect tonic to 
wasted energies, and the elixir of life seems to 
flow with new vigor through torpid veins. 

"Within a quarter of a mile of the summit is 
Bogohama (Water-of-Life), a crystal spring, 
with temperature forty-five degrees, surrounded 
by giants of the forest, rhododendron in pro- 
fusion, and flowers indigenous to the clime. 
Here the trampers, with a bountiful supply of 
lunch, ask "good digestion to wait on appetite 
and health on both." 

From this point they make their way to the 
top, on which Eagle's Nest Hotel is perched. 
Here one gets a breath of the ozone-laden air as 
it comes direct from the top of the Balsams, 
and eyes feast upon an enchanting panorama 
of overpowering sublimity. Yonder is Plott's 
Balsam and Jones' Knob, and toward Great Di- 
vide, a myriad of peaks. 

Fortunate the sojourner on this high moun- 
tain platform to see the sun rise, sometimes 
over a billowy sea of clouds stirring in the 
dawn around those mountain masses out of 
which the peaks appear, and set, sinking over 
the peaks softened into the alpenglow of pink 
and purple, and the shooting pillar of light long 
after it is dusk below. 


THER wonderful trips are to Bal- 
sam, Cherokee, Old Bald, Pisgah, 
Mount Mitchell, and should one de- 
sire to spend a day or so in the midst 
of the wildest mountain scenery, the 
Southern Railway penetrates into 
the very heart of the Nantahalas, 

far-famed for the magnificent grandeur of their 


Lovely is the autumn time in the Lake Juna- 
luska region. The summer 's green is first sup- 
planted by a robe of barbaric splendor, reveal- 
ing all the hues of the rainbow. After a few 
visits of Jack Frost, these colors become still 
more vivid, and the forests seem to blaze with 
the glory of the changing season. Then the col- 
ors become somewhat more subdued, and the 
sourwoods and the blackgums, which have been 
holding aloft the fiery cross of revolt, are recon- 
ciled to their fate, and await patiently the re- 
turn of spring. The mountains then are a more 
somber brown, with long threads of balsam and 
white pine woven into the pattern of their 
quieter robes. As years go by permanent Juna- 
luskans will enjoy seeing Nature pour new 
glory on the woods from her beakers of rich- 
est dyes. 


HILE opportunities for boating, fish- 
ing, swimming, mountain-climbing, 
and excursions to neighboring points 
are pleasures not to be lightly es- 
teemed by those who are in the habit 
of spending the most of their time in 
solving the stern problems of life, 
yet recreation is not the main object for which 
the Assembly was established. 

The old Jewish Church had its holidays and 
festivals. Among the legitimate factors in the 
work of exerting the desired influence and 
bringing about desired results was the social 
feeling centering in the innate and universal 
propensity of men and women to meet together, 
to look each other in the eye, to exchange opin- 
ions, and to engage in those other amenities 
which are so highly prized. 

The camp-meetings of the last century were 
partly an answer to the demand of the Church 
to express normally the age-old social feeling 
of humanity. Among the most prized inheri- 
tances possessed by those who attended these 
camp-meetings are memories interwoven with 
social experiences. 

The successor of the old-time camp-meeting 
is, in a sense, the modern Chautauqua. The 


Methodist Pjpiscopal Church, South, had long- 
needed the Southern Assembly. Lake Junaluska, 
designed to be the meeting place of the best 
order of conferences, the homes of the best peo- 
ple, the association of high-minded men, wo- 
men and children, is destined to become one of 
the great prides and influences of our land. 

There is a feast for those who enjoy the high- 
est intellectual entertainment. At Lake Juna- 
luska we have had some of the ablest speakers 
in the world, men of extraordinary power to 
instruct, move and inspire large audiences. A 
number of gifted musicians have charmed their 
hearers. In the not distant future educational 
buildings will surmount some of the most beau- 
tiful forest-clad hills. 

And, greatest of them all, Lake Junaluska 
combines with physical, social and intellectual 
refreshment, edification and inspiration for the 
spiritual man. The concerted action of the lead- 
ers of our great Church is behind the establish- 
ment of the Southern Assembly. Missionary, 
Epworth League, Sunday-school and Evangel- 
istic meetings have been conducted at Lake 
Junaluska since the year of its opening — 191o. 
The moral value in Christian life and service of 
this great Southern Chautauqua cannot be esti- 
mated. Lake Junaluska is in deed and in truth 


the central powerhouse from which currents of 
spiritual influence go out to all parts of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South.